Mapping Statement


Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 1384

Warning: preg_match_all(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 700

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 707

Warning: preg_match_all(): Compilation failed: invalid range in character class at offset 4 in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 700

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/lightbox-plus/classes/shd.class.php on line 707

Warning: A non-numeric value encountered in /home/lianbsgu/public_html/blogs/wp-content/plugins/mashsharer/includes/template-functions.php on line 805

conceptual model, mental modelThere are three parts in this mapping statement:

  • What is conceptual model
  • Shoulders of giants : existing theories
  • My interventions

What is Conceptual Model

Here is a definition from Wikipedia: “a conceptual model is a model made of the composition of concepts, which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.”

But it is still hard to understand what is conceptual model. Here is another way to understand it:

Assuming you first come to San Francisco, you know the path from home to school, and after living here for a long time, you have a map of San Francisco in your mind. This map represents the geographical conceptual model of San Francisco. It is the same when you are using a new application in your phone. After using it for a while, you have a map of the application, which tells you how to achieve your goals through this application.

Mental Model, Conceptual Model
Figure 1.1 Conceptual Models of Geographical Locations

There are two other models closely related with the conceptual model: the mental model and the implementation model.

Mental Model

It is the model in people’s mind. The model develops when people interact with the world. Here is the definition from Susan Carey’s 1986 journal article, Cognitive science and science education:

A mental model represents a person’s thought process for how something works (i.e., a person’s understanding of the surrounding world). Mental models are based on incomplete facts, past experiences, and even intuitive perceptions. They help shape actions and behavior, influence what people pay attention to in complicated situations, and define how people approach and solve problems.

Implementation Model

The implementation model is the model of how the tool is actually built. It is used for developers and engineers to build the tool. For example, the structure of WordPress is a implementation model. It tells developers how to understand the architectural structure of WordPress.

Relationships between Conceptual Model, Mental Model and Implementation Model

The conceptual model, mental model and implementation model are closely related with each other, and the

Methodology
Figure 1.2 Methodological Environment of Conceptual Model

The mental model is more about cognition and what is in people’s minds, and it is often included in the research process. The implementation model is often included in the develop process. The conceptual model connects the mental model and the implementation model. In the diagram, I also laid out the existing design method and their relationships with these three

models. For example, persona is a way to model the user and it is more about the cognitive part of a user.

Shoulders of giants: existing theories

Jeff Johnson and Austin Henderson

The most comprehensive existing book is Conceptual Models: Core to Good Design By Jeff Johnson and Austin Henderson. They have very strong computer sciences background, and they are the pioneers in the Human-Computer Interaction field. In their book, they talked about what is the conceptual model:

A conceptual model is a high-level description of an application. It enumerates all concepts in the application that users can encounter, describes how those concepts relate to each other, and explains how those concepts fit into tasks that users perform with the application. In so doing, the conceptual model describes abstractly – inters if user-tasks, not keystrokes, mouse-actions, or screen graphics – what people can do with the application and what concepts they need to understand in order to use it.

More specifically, a conceptual model specifies and describes:
the target task-domain, purpose, and high-level functionality of the application; the concepts the application exposes to users, including the task-domain data- objects that users create and manipulate, their user-visible names, their attributes(options and settings), and the operations that can be performed on them; the relationships between these concepts; the mapping of task-domain concepts to application concepts, usually expressed as task-scenarios written in terms of the conceptual model.

It also argues the benefits of using conceptual model methodology: “…helps focus the design of the application by coupling the design to the tasks that the user is doing;
supports having a good process for developing that design into a product;
makes using the application easier for the user.”

They also describe what are not conceptual models. Conceptual models are “not task-level scenarios or use cases.” In their opinion, conceptual models are different from work flows, which is a set of task-level scenarios. They write “a set of task-level scenarios is not a conceptual model: task-level scenarios focus on tasks; the conceptual model focuses on the organization of the application.” They also mentioned that conceptual models are “not users’ mental model” and “not the implementation architecture.” Thus, they have talked about mental models and implementation models in the book and their relationship toward the conceptual model.

Another big and important part of this book is how to represent the conceptual model and what should be included and not be included in the conceptual model. What designers need to put into conceptual models are “user profiles”(or personas), and “task analysis”,because before modeling the conceptual model, these two questions should be answered clearly: who are the audiences? And what are their goals? Then, objects that are related with the tasks or goals should be listed out. After defining and listing the objects, designers should analyze the objects’ attributes and operations.

Accordingly, the way to represent the conceptual model (described by Johnson and Henderson) is a list with three columns: objects, attributes and operations.

Furthermore, they talk about how to use the conceptual model in the design and development process: “A clear, task-based, current, documented conceptual model can act as a meeting point for all those engaged in building and maintaining an application. As a result, users will have a more understandable application, and, more importantly, a more effective tool for getting their work done.”

Susan Weinschenk

Weinschenk has a very strong background in psychology and she has wealthy practical experiences in design research and software development. Her most famous book is 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People. In this book and in an article online (The Secret to Designing an Intuitive UX : Match the Mental Model to the Conceptual Model from UX Magazine), she talks about the relationships and differences between the mental model and the conceptual model: people create mental models, and people interact with conceptual models. She also points out some important takeaways for the conceptual model:

• Design the conceptual model purposefully. Don’t let it “bubble up” from the technology.
• The secret to designing an intuitive user experience is making sure that the conceptual model of your product matches, as much as possible, the mental models of your audience. If you get that right, you will have created a positive and useful experience.

• If you have a brand new product that you know will not match anyone’s mental model, you’ll need to provide training to prepare people to create a new mental model.

Indi Young

This is her book

Young was first a software engineer and then a specialist in web applications. She has a rich experience in design research and she has a lot of practice in using mental model methodology and teaching people how to use this methodology. Her mental model diagram includes “content map”, which is actually the conceptual model. “She diagrams the behavior of a particular audience doing a series of tasks, including their goals and motivations. Then underneath that she describes what the “system” or product will do, or be like, in order to match the task. This entire structure she calls a “mental model.””(Described by Susan Weinchenk)

However, Weinschenk opposed the terminology of mental model in Young’s book:
“Usability specialists and interface designers don’t always agree on what to call something. So I have to warn you that the way I’m using the term mental model does not fit with at least one ofthe new definitions I’ve been reading and hearing about lately. Indi Young has written a book recently called Mental Models, and she’s using the term in a different way…. I think her technique is an interesting one, but I do wish she had used a different term to describe her diagrammatic representations. Her methodology and its output look useful, but it doesn’t match the definition of mental models that’s been around for a long time.”

Young has a very rich experience on how to use her mental model method and it is very easy to follow, especially for how to gather users’ mental model.

Theoretical Environment of conceptual models

Don Norman

In Don Norman’s book The Design of Everyday Things, he mentions the conceptual model, but it is more from a visual and representational perspective. In his scissors example: “the scissors still work. You can figure out the scissors because their operating parts are visible and the implications clear. The conceptual model is made obvious, and there is effective use of affordances and constraints.” In his perspective, the conceptual model is actually the mental model, which is more about visualization and representation. He points out “There is no need to understand the underlying physics or chemistry of each device we own, simply the relationship between the controls and the outcomes.” The controls are the representation of inputs and the outcomes are the outputs in the software world. The “controls” and the “outcomes” are the core to interactions. Thus, this point really helps me think about what is the conceptual model.

Alan Cooper

In Cooper’s book About Face ,he talks about modeling, which is part of the design process, and there is a little bit about the conceptual model in modeling. The whole point of Cooper’s design methodology is task-oriented. It is very intriguing to think about how the conceptual model can be task-oriented. Cooper provides an overview of the design process. And it is helpful for me to think about where does the conceptual model methodology fits in the design process.

Hugh Dubberly

Dubberly is the master of systematic thinking in the design world. He introduced the conceptual model to me in the system course. He has a new way of represent the conceptual model by using the concept map method (introduced by Joseph D. Novak and D.Bob Gowin in the book Learning How to Learn).

George Lakoff and Mark Johnson

In their book Metaphors We Live By, They point out that people see the world by metaphors, for example “time is money,” and people “spend time.” The way we use out language contents a lot of metaphors. Thus, it is very interesting to think about mental models and conceptual models in a more psychological way.

My interventions

My point of view on existing theories

Johnson and Henderson have a very deep understanding on conceptual models and their relationships between mental models and implementation models, but the way they represent and analyze the conceptual model is very hard to follow, and it is more from an engineer’s perspective. I think there may be better ways to represent the conceptual models, and better guidelines to use conceptual model methodology.

Young has rich experiences on how to research and utilize the mental model method, but she doesn’t say a lot on the “content map” part. In this case, it is hard to connect user’s mental model with the real product, and in my perspective, the conceptual model is the way to utilize the mental model method. However, her research methods are very detailed and helpful. I can follow her research method in the following projects.

Projects and Interventions

To enrich the conceptual model methodology, there are three parts that need to be further developed: 1. How to compare the mental model and the conceptual model, and find the mismatches; 2. How to represent and design the conceptual model; 3. How to utilize the conceptual model in the design process.

There are two kinds of projects I am thinking about to develop the conceptual model methodology: 1. Redesign existing tools, systems, or applications. First, I will research the mental model, and then represent the conceptual model to redesign the conceptual model and the products; 2. Design new tools or systems.

The final outcome is to enrich, and develop the conceptual model methodology.

Bibliography

Cooper, Alan, Robert Reimann, Dave Cronin, Christopher Noessel, Jason Csizmadi, and Doug LeMoine. About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design(Fourth Edition) , 2014. Print.

Carey, Susan Cognitive Science and Science Education . American Psychologist, Vol 41(10), Oct. 1986, 1123-1130

Dubberly, Hugh(2014) “Concept Maps”, Dubberly Design Office, http://www.dubberly.com/ concept-maps

Johnson, Jeff and Henderson, Austin Conceptual Models Core to Good Design. Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2011. Print

Lakoff, George and Johnson Mark. Metaphors We Live By. The University of Chicago Press, 1980. Print

Weinschenk, Susan (2011-04-14). 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People. Pearson Education.

“Conceptual Models”, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conceptual_model

Norman, Donald A. The Design of Everyday Things. , 2013. Print.

Young, Indi (2008-02-01). Mental Models . Rosenfeld Media.